First of all, it is necessary to study the history of transportation and its history in Iran in order to teach international transportation. Although the history and age of transportation goes back to the age of mankind, the most important transportation documents are related to the Silk Road. This route, which has a lot of commercial credit, was created in the second century BC and flourished until the sixteenth century (for about 1800 years). After that, due to the development and expansion of roads, sea transportation, the industrial revolution, and the possibility of using commercial ships, the Silk Road lost its importance almost from the end of the 14th century and this decline continued until the beginning of the 20th century. Another aspect of transportation, that is, railway transportation, announced its role from the 20th century onwards. Until in the last decades of the 20th century, a new life was breathed into land trade through the development and completion of cargo trucks, as well as the commercialization of road transport operations. In such a way, a turning point in the life of transportation and land trade was created in the 80s, after several centuries of stagnation.
Historical evidence and documents have proven that Iranians knew about ships, seafaring and especially the transportation of goods by ships before the appearance of lines, that is, about several thousand years before Christ. As a result, the history of Iranian seafaring without exaggeration goes back to about three thousand years before Christ, in which the first stone road in the world was built near the Mazandaran (Caspian) sea in the north of Iran. Which was about two meters in diameter and was built with its own strategy, in such a way that it was covered with large stones from the bottom and small pebbles as it reached the road surface. Due to the fact that the soldiers of the empires who moved on foot and also traveled long distances would get tired less, and this issue was completely foreseen from the technical and engineering point of view. After that, the road construction industry was transferred to Europe and England, and now all kinds of road surfaces and new passages with advanced technologies have been created.
The history of road transportation in Iran is not long, and cargo transportation started in the Qajar era. At that time, having a basic driving license was very important. At that time, truck drivers had to be trained for 10 days to learn the necessary preparation for transporting goods in specific routes in the country. After the World War, more trucks (second-hand European ones) were imported to Iran, and the result was that the job of truck driving changed from a national to a regional and provincial state. International shipping was not common in Iran until this time, but a few years after the Russian Revolution, international shipping companies were established and started working in Iran.
In 1927, the German Junkers Airlines was transferred to the private sector, which was approved by the parliament of the time. The Lufthansa airline company, whose plane flew from Berlin to Kabul once a month in 1938, was allowed to land in Tehran. Gradually, due to reasons such as: the increase in the number of passengers, the increase in airmail packages, as well as Iran’s membership in the International Aviation Organization, other reputable foreign airline companies also established air lines in Iran, while concluding air transportation contracts. During this period, the first national flights to domestic destinations and permitted countries were started in Iran and Pars Airlines.
According to the law approved by the parliament and also with the financial support of the government, Iran National Homa Airlines was established in May 1958 with the merger of the two mentioned companies and the task of air transportation of passengers and cargo (cargo) was given to it. This company has always developed and equipped its fleet more and more, in addition to domestic routes, it has established flight routes to most countries of the world. Over time, as well as considering the increasing demand in the development of domestic and international air transportation of countries, in 1982 the country’s air service company (Asman) was established by merging three smaller airlines. This progress was seen with more intensity in the years after the Islamic Revolution, and permission to operate and move passengers and cargo was also granted to non-governmental air transport companies. These companies were responsible for the procurement of aircraft, for example through purchase or lease, passenger and cargo transportation on domestic and international flight routes.
In 1831, the idea of building a railway from Ottoman to the Persian Gulf was first proposed by the British, and Lord Palmerston and Lord Stanford Dudcalf approved it after 25 years and received this privilege, but due to some reasons, it was not implemented. In 1903, the Germans received the privilege of building the railway line from Ankara to the Persian Gulf, which lasted until 1914. And the reason for that was the conflict of Germany’s desire with the interests of the British and Russian countries, because this line would bring Germany closer to Iran. And the economic influence of Germany was extended to India, thus it was considered a threat to others.
In this regard, the British wanted to build a railway line in the south of Iran, and the Soviet Union was also thinking of building a railway line in the north of Iran to the Persian Gulf. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, who faced two strong opponents and decided to use a third force in the meantime, for this reason, he made arrangements to contact the powerful Germany and sent a message to Germany about the construction of a railway line by Fajr al-Dawlah. But the Russian and British governments created problems for Iran with their arrangements.
Finally, in 1872 and 1874, respectively, the British government and the Russian government each volunteered to request railway concessions in Iran. In 1878, the representative of a French company living in Istanbul took the privilege of constructing the Rasht-Tehran railway line from the hands of Iran, which in the end did not reach the practical stage. The privilege of constructing the Hazrat Abdulazim railway line was given to Mesiobuatal, who later sold it to a Belgian company, which invested two million francs to build this railway, which was opened in 1888.
Iran’s second railway line was built with the capital of an Iranian person named Haj Mohammad Hossein Amin al-Dharab from the port of Mahmood Abad by the Caspian Sea to the city of Amol, which had no other result than a loss for the concessionaire, which was abandoned as a result. Later, England and Russia built several local railway lines in Iran to protect their interests, the Jolfa railway to Tabriz, also between Sufiyan and Sharafkhaneh on the shore of Urmia lake was built by Russia. During the First World War, Ottoman forces occupied and destroyed the railway line from Azerbaijan to Marand, but at the same time, in the early fall of 1915, they also built the Mako railway line.
The Zahedan railway lines from Java to Zahedan, which was the continuation of the road to India, were built by the British in Iran in 1918 and 1919. Some Iranian activists united in 1959 to establish a company capable of building a railway in Iran. This group also presented suggestions to the parliament, but they remained fruitless until these suggestions were implemented in the first Pahlavi period. According to that, the railway construction bill was published on January 20, 1305 AH and was approved in a meeting on January 18, 1305 AH.
The Iran and Africa Business Club has also specialized in the African continent in the form of an airline company called Fajr Faraz Iranian, and its vision is to establish direct passenger and cargo airlines from African countries to the Islamic Republic of Iran.